The return of submarine-based nukes?

Source: Responsible Statecraft
by Tony Green

“When I walked across the brow of the U.S.S. Topeka for the last time in March 2000, it was a nuclear-powered submarine in the Los Angeles class. I served four years in the vessel’s reactor compartment as a nuclear reactor operator. At the time, the vessel did not carry any nuclear missiles. Now, a decision to add them to the Topeka and other similar submarines risks the lives of the submariners on board and the American people. During my service, the Navy used two types of nuclear submarines. The ballistic submarine, intended to act as a deterrent to any pre-emptive nuclear strike by another country with nuclear capabilities, and the fast attack submarine, designed to spy and gather surveillance. In 2018, the Trump administration considered retrofitting in-service fast attack submarines with nuclear weapons.” (08/03/22)