Free Sovereign and Independent States: George III and the Treaty of Paris

Source: Tenth Amendment Center
by Joe Wolverton, II

‘His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and Independent States’ That is the first clause of Article 1 of the Treaty of Paris, the agreement officially ending hostilities between Great Britain and the United States, signed on September 3, 1783. … George III reaffirms that not only are his former colonies ‘free sovereign and independent,’ but he vows from that day forward to ‘treat with them as such.’ Notice, moreover, he is not signing a treaty with one nation; he is signing a treaty with 13 nations, each of which is listed at the beginning of Article 1.” (09/03/21)